REC AO Blog
With University of California funding, we replaced the refrigeration units in the walk-in cold storage rooms in the packline facility at Lindcove. This will help us regulate the temperature better in these rooms and allow new and interesting experiments...
Water Striders (Gerris remigis) can show up in the strangest places. These striders found a 2 foot by 3 foot puddle near a water spring at the side of a road here at the UC Hopland Research & Extension Center. Also called Pond Skaters, these insects are true bugs in the phylogenetic order Hemiptera. They are common on quiet stream and pond waters from sea level to 8500' elevation. The tarsi (last leg segments) have fine hairs that are hard to wet, supported by surface film, thus allowing the insects to "surface-stride" on top of the water. They are highly predaceous, feeding on a variety of aquatic insects. In response to adverse conditions, some adults can fly to new habitats.
The large amount of rainfall this winter and spring will set the stage for more Lygus in summer. The relationship between historic rainfall records and annual cotton loss estimates supports the idea that Lygus will be more problematic this year and observations from the ground confirms this assessment. However, as in other years, the primary source of Lygus will be from crops and locations within a few miles of your cotton field, not miles away from the edge of the Valley.
In the past month, I have been conducting the annual Lygus survey. The survey was later than usual because of the extended rainy season into April and cooler temperatures in May. This is what I have observed:
- Foothills are generally dry and limited Lygus hosts, due primarily to early rains that favored grasses over broadleaves. 2011 was not a great year for wildflowers in the Sierra foothills due mostly because of the heavy grass prevented the annual broadleaves from developing widely.
- Along the I-5 corridor, tarweed, a key indicator host for Lygus, is located mostly south of Highway 198. It is more common on the valley flats than on the coastal foothills. When sampled 2 weeks ago, the population was split between overwintering adults and first generation nymphs, 1st to 3rd instars. The further south I travelled the more tarweed I could find in uncultivated areas of Kern County, commonly known as “deserts”. The importance of tarweed is not as much it is a major source for the Valley but rather as local infestation point and indicator of potential problems.
- Tarweed is a good plant for Lygus development because it spans the late winter and summer periods. It acts as a bridge for Lygus to develop a foothold and increase its numbers during May and parts of June. Without that bridge, populations tend to disperse and build slower and later.
Safflower plays a major role as a plant host bridge, allowing overwinter populations to settle and reproduce. Safflower plantings are spread throughout the Valley and will act as localized sources for Lygus into susceptible crops. The problem can be alleviated by managing Lygus population in safflower before the nymphs can become adults and leave the field. For details on managing Lygus in safflower to mitigate movement into cotton, refer to IPM in Cotton in the Western Region of the US, UC ANR Publication 3305.
For twenty-one years the UC Hopland Research & Extension Center has maintained a Cabernet Sauvignon research vineyard. Although small in size (2.0 acres), the design included 6 replicated blocks of four treatments each, with each treatment irrigated and metered independently. Originally, the elaborate irrigation system and planted vines were to carry out a research project looking at the modification of wine characteristics through irrigation management. Work by R.J. Smith, UCCE Sonoma County Viticulturalist, and T.L. Prichard, Water Management Specialist, Dept. of LAWR at UC Davis, showed that 60% of full potential water use was a "safe" management option. Malate and titratable acidity, yield, berry weight, berries per vine, cluster numbers, and soil profile moisture content were all included in the data that was analyzed. Subsequently the vineyard provided a research platform for other projects such as: 1) Impact of grape vine stress on root and scion health - interaction of vines, Phylloxera, Tetranychus and Fusarium, 2) Effects of 1-MCP (1-methyl cyclopropene affects the ripening process) on wine grape development, and the initial stages of 3) A comparison of organic, biodynamic, and conventional farming methods. The vineyard has fulfilled its duty, and is now in the process of being removed. Photo by Steven Poor.
The first stop on country music artist Michael Peterson's whirlwind tour of San Joaquin Valley agriculture today was the Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center, where he enjoyed fresh fruit produced by local farmers and was introduced to the science behind the California agricultural industry's tremendous success.
Peterson was a member of 4-H as a youth in eastern Washington. That early exposure to agriculture, he said, may have planted the seed that developed into his current affinity for the farming industry.
Peterson brings a measure of celebrity to the effort to share the message about California agriculture. His country music debut album in 1997 produced four hit singles, “Drink, Swear, Steal and Lie," "From Here to Eternity," “Too Good To Be True” and “When the Bartender Cries.” He was named Top New Artist of 1997 by Billboard and Radio & Records and honored as Country Weekly's Male Newcomer and Gavin's Artist to Watch in 1998.
More recently, Peterson has been active in youth development and veterans' programs. He presents a school assembly called "Tag, You're It," which blends illusions, humor, interactive multi-media, audience participation and the power of the internet to help improve test scores and boost high school graduation rates. He has also traveled to Iraq several times to perform for the troops and is creating a music project for the Military Child Education Coalition.
Peterson said he was impressed by his visit to the Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center.
"I never thought about the science part, on this level, being so important in agriculture," he said. "Thank goodness y'all are here."
In the video above, Michael Peterson expresses esteem for California agricultural science. For a transcript of the video, please email email@example.com.